Foundations of Restorative Justice

by Abigail Levine

What is Restorative Justice?

Restorative justice takes a holistic approach to wrongdoings as it looks beyond the offense itself. It concentrates on the impact of the actions and strives to improve relations among victims, offenders, and their communities.  

The approach balances accountability with a safe space for the victim to share their experience and its impact. It considers the underlying issues and the factors that led to the offense while teaching students the effects of their actions. Their community is then given the opportunity to develop an appropriate stance and help the wrongdoer correct their mistake. 

Restorative justice has been proven as an effective alternative to the traditional responses school discipline imposes. Students’ peers directly strengthen relationships and enable the offender to reconnect, ensuring they do not experience isolation or ostracization.

The Tiers of Restorative Justice

Tier I: Prevention

The first foundational tier centers upon community and includes talking circles that reflect values of inclusiveness, respect, and supporting healing. Many times schools have contracts to empower community members to act upon their shared values.

Tier II: Intervention

This tier is utilized when students break rules and harm another. It recommends mediation to offer the offending student a chance to come forward and make amends by meeting with the affected parties and a mediator, usually a teacher. They engage in a dialogue to form a plan.

Tier III: Reintegration

The last tier is intended for kids with prolonged absences – whether it be due to suspension, expulsion, incarceration, or truancy. The adjustment is normally incredibly difficult and has resulted in many students voluntarily dropping out. Restorative justice practices are intended to acknowledge the challenges these students face in reintegrating, while promoting accountability and achievement. A wrap-around, supportive environment is intended to prevent recidivism. 

What Does Restorative Justice Look Like in Schools?

Many schools develop core values. The June Jordan School for Equity uses the acronym RICH to describe theirs: Respect, Integrity, Courage, and Humility. These values provide a common language for students, parents, and teachers to understand what is expected of those within the school community. It is critical that these values are enforced and individuals are held accountable for acting accordingly.

Restorative justice may also include investment and wrap around support by providing resources and support to the school community. Stakeholders are often given individualized support through coaching, training, and professional development. They are taught ways to cultivate positive school culture, specifically through activities that foster a sense of belonging and pride in their school community.

Team-building exercises may be incorporated to further build relationships. One example is peace walks. These efforts may be bolstered by regular, positive feedback through daily and one-on-one check-ins with restorative practices specialists. 

Several schools have implemented relationship-building circles as an alternative to suspension and similar exclusionary disciplinary methods. It has been shown to improve communication, listening, and focusing skills. The circles are often implemented for students in crisis or those returning to the school following a prolonged absence. They prepare a student for reentry and usually involve all members of the school community, including teachers and families.

Circles, however, are not restricted to a specific population and have proven to be a strong means of facilitating conversation – whether it be through dialogue circles, mediation circles, and healing circles. 

How Can You Hold Students Accountable?

Peer courts are a common practice in which students are given the option to attend a sort of trial where student advocate presents the case while a judge and jury listen, assessing the harm inflicted and determining the facts of the case. Together, they develop an alternative consequence plan that prioritizes tutoring, hours spent in a leadership class, and/or serving time on the peer court jury.

Members of peer court have been trained in: asking questions, interviewing, writing statements, speaking to the judge and jury, fair and appropriate ACP’s, coaching the respondent through the process, and checking in with the respondent later.

Courts are a formal version of a common practice of implementing restorative justice. Most often, this involves questions, which may be asked in a circle: 

  • What can you do to fix this? 
  • How would you feel if the same thing happened to you? 
  • And how did your behavior impact your fellow students? In what way? 
  • What were you thinking about at the time? 
  • What have you thought about since?

Those who are harmed respond to restorative questions as well: 

  • What did you think when you realized what happened? 
  • What impact has this had on you and others? 
  • What has been the hardest thing for you? 
  • What do you think needs to happen to make things right?

How Has Restorative Justice Proven Successful?

It reduces the rates of recidivism and the post-traumatic stress of the offense. Stakeholders have echoed these results, reporting greater satisfaction with the outcomes. Student behavior has improved as well as relationships among teachers and students, students and their peers, teachers and their colleagues, and ultimately the school and its larger community.

Is Restorative Justice a Less Severe Form of Punishment?

Restorative justice discussion is not intended to be an alternative to punishment. It should preclude resentment by ensuring children understand the gravity and meaning of their actions. 

How Does Bias Fit Into This?

Bias has become ingrained in our society. It is imperative notice the way it appears, especially through differences in hiring practices. A more welcoming and inclusive culture can then be integrated into the larger community.

As Matt Alexander said, “You can’t restore justice to the community when you haven’t created a community to begin with.”  

Data and Restorative Justice

Data has revealed restorative justice requires commitment and extensive implementation, that often be costly and difficult. Some claim the practice requires years before a definitive answer can reveal its effectiveness.

Nevertheless, some schools have been successful, especially in California. Oakland Unified School District began using the program at a failing middle school in 2006. In merely three years, they were able to decrease suspensions by 87 percent, and witnessed a marked decrease in violence.

Are There Any Other Benefits?

Restorative justice is intended to improve student outcomes while addressing the root causes to better student behavior, especially through improved communication, which is regarded as a critical life skill. Additionally, improved relationships are intended to lower stress for teachers and offer more time for teaching.

Food Insecurity: A Rising Issue of Concern

What is Food Insecurity?

Food insecurity is a lack of accessibility and affordability of food for a household. Food deserts, food waste, and economic crises all contribute to rising food insecurity rates. The people experiencing food insecurity will then have physical, mental, and emotional health consequences. 

Houston

In the greater Houston area, 16.6% of households reported uncertain or limited access to nutritious food in 20201. This includes 500K+ Houstonians living in “food deserts” with little to no access to healthy food1. The USDA has classified at least ten neighborhoods as food deserts, including Second Ward, Greater Fifth Ward, East End, Galena Park, Channel view, East Houston, Aldine Westfield, Acres Homes, parts of Bellaire, Southwest Houston, Sunnyside, and Central Southwest1.

As well as the 1.1 million people in the Houston Food Bank total service area that are categorized as food-insecure, while the food bank ends up serving about 800,000 families in an average year2. Houston Food Bank’s Chief Impact Officer Nicole Lander says these numbers have doubled due to Covid-192. For example, the Houston Food Bank distributes 1 million pounds of food a day compared to 400,000 pounds of food a day pre-Covid-192. 40% of the households served by the Houston Food Bank have Type 2 diabetes or heart disease, showing inaccessibility to healthy food2

African Americans and Latinos rates for food insecurity are higher than their representation in the general population of Texas7. 48.4% of Texas Latinos are food insecure as of January 2021, while they only make up 36.8% of the population7. 14% of African Americans in Texas are food insecure, making up 11.8% of the population7

Impacts on Health 

With more families in financial crisis, children in food-insecure homes have increased from 1 in 4 to 1 in 32. This means that without access to affordable healthy food, childhood obesity rates are likely growing, increasing their risk of high blood pressure, high cholesterol, insulin resistance, anxiety, depression, and low self-esteem3.

Food insecurity amongst adults not only impacts short-term health problems but can lead to lifelong chronic illnesses5. For example, lower nutrient intakes are associated with long-term conditions including hypertension, high cholesterol, heart disease, depression, anxiety, and even cancer5

According to the National Poll on Healthy Aging, nearly half of adults age 50–80 who were food insecure rated their physical health as fair or poor (45%), compared to 14% of those who were food secure4. 24% of those who were food insecure reported fair or poor mental health compared to 5% of those who were food secure4. Furthermore, 43% of older adults who were food insecure rated their diets as being fair or poor quality compared to 20% of those who were food secure4.

Impacts on the World

According to Second Servings, food waste is a significant contributor to climate change6. Food is the largest component in the landfill at 21% and emits extremely potent methane gas contributing to more greenhouse gases worsening the degradation of our ozone layer, and speeding up effects of climate change (increase temperatures and water levels)6. This food waste increases food insecurity rates, because according to the World Food Programme the agricultural productivity losses due to increased temperature are estimated to induce hunger and malnutrition rates up 20 percent by 20506. The United States Department of Agriculture estimates that Americans waste 30-40% of the available food at the consumer and retail levels which costs our economy $218 billion each year6

Local Organizations Working to Reduce Food Insecurity

Nonprofits like the Houston Food Bank, Interfaith of the Woodlands, Target Hunger, West Houston Assistance Ministries Food Pantry, Heights Interfaith Ministries Food Pantry, Kids’ Meals, and Second Servings all work to get people much-needed food. Many nonprofits realize that this food can not just be any food. It helps for it to be healthy, nutritious food. For example, Second Servings saw many healthy meals go to waste at events and came up with a solution of refrigerated trucks to transport those meals to food-insecure populations6

Conclusion

Food insecurity in light of the Covid-19 pandemic is one of the most prevalent issues we face as a society. Food insecurity does not just affect someone that is experiencing homelessness; many families experiencing economic hardship are struggling to afford healthy food2. People need the knowledge of where to go to get food; for example, you may call your 211 to find resources near you. However, our communities must come together to fight food insecurity as a broader issue as well. Food deserts and food waste need to be eliminated or at least reduced. 

1“500K+ Houstonians live in ’food deserts’ with little to no access to healthy food and the problem has worsened due to COVID-19.” 

2 “Houston Food Bank: COVID-19 pandemic amplifies already high food insecurity across region.” 

3 “Childhood Obesity Causes & Consequences.” 

4“How Food Insecurity Affects Older Adults.” 

5 “Food Insecurity Is Associated with Chronic Disease among Low-Income NHANES Participants.”

6“Fighting Hunger. Ending Waste.” 

7“Visualizing Food Insecurity.” 

AVDA at a Crossroads: Teen Dating Violence Awareness

Nicole Franklin-Jones M.A., CPLC

Living through a pandemic—with an arctic storm of historic proportions on top of that—is stressful for anyone and everyone. The additional challenges of isolation and financial strain faced by survivors of domestic violence during these unprecedented times also extends to teens and young adults in abusive dating relationships.


February is Teen Dating Violence Awareness Month (TDVAM), a national effort to raise awareness about abuse in teen and 20-something relationships and promote programs that prevent it. Locally, AVDA (Aid to Victims of Domestic Abuse) works with schools, programs for at-risk students and community-based groups on teen abuse prevention by focusing on healthy relationships. AVDA believes early prevention and intervention are the keys to ending domestic abuse.


One in three teens report experiencing dating violence and 43 percent of college students report experiencing violent or abusive behaviors in relationships. Dating violence is a pattern of abusive behaviors used to exert power and control over a dating partner. This pattern can be different in every relationship, but usually becomes more frequent and more dangerous over time. Dating violence can include physical, verbal, emotional, sexual or technology-facilitated abuse. Teen dating violence can have serious ramifications and place victims at higher risk for future harm, such as substance abuse, eating disorders, risky sexual behavior and future domestic violence.


Raising awareness of what makes a relationship healthy and the warning signs of abuse empowers young people to know that they deserve to be treated with respect and that abuse of any kind is unacceptable. This powerful information and support can shift the outcomes for teens and young adults, and also lower rates of domestic violence among adults — currently one in four women and one in seven men will experience severe physical violence from an intimate partner.


If you or someone you know is experiencing dating abuse, AVDA is here to help with free legal representation for protective orders and trauma counseling. Get the help you deserve by calling 713-224-9911. For information about AVDA’s youth abuse prevention programming, visit https://avda-tx.org/youth-prevention/

love is respect, a project of the National Domestic Violence Hotline, offers 24/7 support to young people who have questions or concerns about their relationships, and its website www.loveisrespect.org has terrific information on healthy relationship skills. AVDA joins with love is respect in its promotion of Teen Dating Violence Awareness Month with the theme, chosen by college students across the country, Know Your Worth.


The Know Your Worth campaign is grounded in the belief that everyone, regardless of sexual identity, race, or gender is worthy of respect. No one should ever feel unworthy of a respectful relationship or worthless. Individuals can participate in Teen Dating Violence Awareness Month on social media with hashtag #KnowYourWorth and by loveisrespect.org/get-involved/tdvam/

Bipartisanship in Texas: A Critical Model for National Politics

Jordan Zavareei

On one of the first days of my Government Relations internship at Minaret Foundation, I was tasked with researching bills authored or sponsored by key Republican state legislators in the most recent prior legislative session. 

One of our organization’s advocacy projects—the support of a bill intended to increase the safety of both law enforcement officers and young students in public schools—demanded vetting potential sponsors in the legislature. As this advocacy project would require bipartisan support. I was looking for Republicans who had a history of supporting the public school system or measures to protect children from violence. 

In searching for past bills relating to public schools and the protection of children, I inevitably stumbled upon a great deal of other legislative efforts that took place in the most recent past legislature.

Defying Expectations – Healthcare

As an outsider to Texas state politics, I was surprised at the unique conglomerate of policy stances held by politicians like Republican State Representative Sam Harless. Harless promoted traditionally conservative values such as lowering taxes and securing pro-life legislation, but he also had political positions uncharacteristic of the typical establishment Republican. 

Harless stands firm in his commitment to affordable healthcare and stellar public education. For instance, in the previous legislative session, Harless co-authored a bill to enhance maternal and newborn healthcare, specifically for Medicaid recipients. He also supported public school teachers by co-authoring a bill that would add over $500 million to the teacher retirement fund. 

Harless’ identity as a politician has seemed to form around his support for such legislation. On his website, in the first description of his work since assuming office, it reads: “Sam was instrumental in passing several bills that focused on improving public education and making healthcare more accessible and affordable.” Harless does not shy away on his policy stances regarding healthcare and public education; instead, he uses these stances to develop his brand as a politician. 

Defying Expectations – Law Enforcement

Most intriguing, perhaps, is Harless’s unique approach to supporting law enforcement in Texas. His support of law enforcement most often comes in protecting victims of rape, sexual assault, and human trafficking. Harless co-authored a bill designed to improve the statewide policies and practices regarding the prevention, investigation, and prosecution of sexual assault and other sex offenses. 

The Harm of Zero-Tolerance Policies

The zero-tolerance policies that were instituted several decades ago have entrenched an ineffective and prejudiced disciplinary system. 

Research demonstrates that zero-tolerance policies have failed to make schools safer as evidenced by a ten-year study conducted by the American Psychological Association. Scholars have alternatively discovered an inverse relationship in which schools that enforce zero-tolerance policies report higher rates of suspensions and expulsions. They also have comparatively lower ratings regarding the overall school climate and an increased likelihood of academic underperformance.

The policies spark fear within students through the subconscious knowledge that they may be suspended or arrested at any moment. They cultivate an environment wholly antithetical to that expected and intended. Schools should be a student’s safe space for students to learn and grow – never the beginning of their criminal record. 

Leaving school before receiving a degree gravely damages an individual’s ability to thrive. Dropouts are exponentially more likely to struggle to obtain a job and earn sufficient income to support themselves.

Students who have been suspended or expelled are more than eight times as likely to be incarcerated as those who graduate. Students who attend poorly run schools constitute 60% of the federal prison inmates and 75% in state prison. 

However, few anticipated the far-reaching consequences that stem from these policies. Proponents of harsh disciplinary policies believe zero-tolerance policies will deter future misconduct, although this theory has been disproven. Research demonstrates that school suspensions do not reduce the likelihood of disruption but that they actually predict higher future rates of misbehavior and suspensions.

The ineffectiveness may be centrally traced to the tendency of punitive punishment systems to address the topical manifestation without considering the root cause of misbehavior. They isolate students and foster a predisposition for future struggles.

School suspension is the primary predictor of contact with the justice system for students to become incarcerated. Schools are increasingly outsourcing discipline to police departments, which precipitates a drastic increase in the number of youths in the juvenile justice system. Police arrest 2.2 million minors across the nation, and 1.7 million of these cases are referred to juvenile courts. It is estimated that almost 48,000 youth are confined in juvenile jails, prisons, boot camps, and other residential institutions on any given night. 

The majority are minority students: during the 2009–2010 school year, 70% of students arrested in schools were African American or Latino. Bias is a critical issue of zero-tolerance policies as the punishments assigned are often far too severe to be merited by minor offenses and so, from a young age, students learn to distrust authorities. 

Latino students are three times more likely to be suspended, expelled, and referred to the criminal justice system than their white peers that commit the same infraction, an issue merely worsened by the growing presence of student resource officers. They are intended to bolster a school’s safety, but interact with minorities at disproportionate rates, leading many students to feel uncomfortable and unsafe.

In California, a school board president, Mark Sanchez, asserted their district should terminate their contract with the San Francisco Police Department. During a school board meeting, he contended, “[a]ny money that we are spending on this program is not OK. It sends a horrible message to our students of color.”

An advocacy organization, Black Parallel School Board, who advocates for black students, echoed his message, claiming “[p]olicing in our schools teaches young people that they are viewed as criminals, not scholars.”

The growing trend to remove police from schools also stems from officers’ ability to use force, the extent of which is not necessarily merited. The Houston Chronicle reported that police officers in eight of the largest school districts in the Houston area had used force at least 1,300 times between 2011 and 2015 against students and trespassers. Like many across the nation, the officers drew firearms, fired pepper spray, hit students with nightsticks, or brought in police dogs.

In one instance, Noe Niño de Rivera spent an excess of 50 days in a medically induced coma after the sheriff assigned to his school tased him. He had interfered to stop a fight but fell backward and hit his head once the officer intervened. He has since struggled to regain his quality of life with impaired vision, balance, and memory.

However, Noe’s story is not unique. Many students have suffered mentally and physically as a result of zero-tolerance policies and their correlation with increased security and policing. 

AVDA at a Crossroads: the Anti-Violence Movement & Racial Justice

The first blog post of a series on evoking change

As part of the anti-violence movement, AVDA stands at a monumental crossroads at a historic moment in time, and we recognize the role we can play in racial justice. We remain steadfast in our mission to end family violence, especially as we see injustices levied on the defenseless. The same forces of power and control that abusers use were at work in the senseless death of George Floyd, and our hearts are heavy. However, we are inspired to assess and understand how systemic racism relates to our work in the anti-violence movement and do all that we can to help eradicate the harm it has on those we serve.

For four decades, AVDA has served the Greater Houston area in its mission to end family violence through its Legal Advocacy Program and Battering Intervention and Prevention Program. Although domestic violence occurs in every culture regardless of socioeconomic, educational, and religious background, we recognize that violence disproportionately affects marginalized groups, especially those who experience multiple forms of oppression.  The root causes of violence are inextricably interconnected. We cannot end gender violence unless we also work to end all oppressive systems:  patriarchy, sexism, racism, nationalism, classism, homophobia, transphobia, ableism, audism, anti-Semitism, religious discrimination, and xenophobia/anti-immigrant sentiment.

On the one hand, we realize that deep-seated, systemic racism and the inequities that disadvantaged communities of color in the past are still woven into the fabric of our institutions today, from education and housing to the criminal justice system, which mass incarcerates and punishes more harshly people of color than white people. On the other hand, AVDA and our partner domestic violence service providers must take inventory of our oppression, power imbalances, and racism within our organizations. 

We are committed to change—both within our organization and in the communities that we serve. Please follow us on our journey and help us by committing yourself to social and racial justice. 

These articles informed this blog post:

https://vawnet.org/news/why-it-important-bring-racial-justice-framework-our-efforts-end-domestic-violence
https://vawnet.org/material/how-can-movement-building-support-our-efforts-social-change-and-collective-thriving

Rhetoric Surrounding Undocumented Immigrants

Rhetoric and Policy

Within our legislation, the use of the word “alien” has become commonplace. “Alien” is used to describe someone who is not a citizen of the United States but resides here legally or illegally. The term may seem academic, but it inherently dehumanizes the subject. 

Even now, children are being ripped from their families and held in cages at the U.S Mexico border with only a mat and a Teflon sheet for comfort. The treatment of these children and families is due to the current zero-tolerance policy, which aims to prosecute all “illegal aliens” regardless of their asylum status. The widespread use of the word “alien” is a tactic used to desensitize us, to make us believe that children and families held at the border are not human. Rather, we are to conclude that these “aliens” are inhuman, and thus worthy of inhumane treatment. 

This rhetoric feeds heavily into the principles of nationalism, which is defined as “identification with one’s own nation and support for its interests, especially to the exclusion or detriment of the interests of other nations”. 

Dehumanizing Language vs Empathy

This language doesn’t only dehumanize non-citizens, it also protects the people who use it. Who could be accused of crimes against humans, when the targets of harsh immigrations laws are not seen as human at all? It begs the question: what moral failings are we willing to tolerate to sustain a narrative that centers ourselves, and de-centers the people in need?

The Trump administration’s decision to implement a zero-tolerance policy against “illegal aliens” is heavily rooted in nationalism, which, in the case of U.S. nationalism, argues that the only “good” nation is the United States of America, and the only “good” people are citizens; therefore, anyone or anything else is “bad” and “dangerous.” Think: the Proud Boys.

This choice of language is intentional, as it dehumanizes non-citizens, describes them as dangerous, and supports the narrative that these people are not worth fighting for or protecting. After all, caging “aliens” is protective, but caging families creates unwanted empathy. 

That empathy for our fellow humans runs directly counter to a nationalist agenda as when we experience empathy for caged families, we begin to develop empathy and think of our children and our families, and are more inclined to oppose the harsh policy that is, as I write, separating children from their parents at the border. 

The Role of Religion

Religion helps believers digest and analyze current issues, including rhetoric and immigration. Islam guides its believers to understand that rhetoric is inherent to treatment. 

A hadith relayed by Abu Hurayrah instructs Muslims, “Whoever believes in God and the Last Day should speak a good word or remain silent. And whoever believes in God and the Last Day should show hospitality to his neighbor”. 

The first instruction is to speak “a good word,” which can translate to vetting rhetoric in modern times. The second commandment is to be hospitable to neighbors, which includes respect. The religion instructs believers to use good rhetoric and be respectful, both of which are lost when dehumanizing language is used.  

Rhetoric and ideology are essential in understanding why words matter. The language used to describe people must be humanizing to create empathy. Without empathy, the path to mistreatment is paved. 

Protecting Our Protectors: Mental Health and the Police

Police officers are tasked with keeping our communities safe. In their training, they learn both how to be in shape for the job, but also about local and state laws, protocols, human psychology, safety, and basic medical knowledge1. All of this is to ensure the safety of themselves and their community.

But putting their lives on the line comes at a cost, including experiencing a wide variety of mental health issues like PTSD (post-traumatic stress disorder) and depression2. This is because while their training can prepare them abstractly how to handle a car accident, nothing can prepare them for the emotional toll they actually experience. Police officers are often also first on the scene for other mass casualty events and murders2.

Many times police officers have a persona of toughness and strength, but just because they can handle a tragic situation does not mean their mental health isn’t suffering because of it2. According to the National Alliance on Mental Health, one in four police officers has considered committing suicide3. This is four times the rate for firefighters3. What’s most startling, however, is that more police officers die by suicide than in the line of duty3

Within our own Texas Police Department, one out of four officers has symptoms of depression, PTSD, suicidal ideation, and/or anxiety4. Only 20% of those officers seek treatment4. After reporting these findings, researchers for the JAMA network (a medical journal published by the American Medical Association) suggest mental illness needs to be identified systematically, so police officers can then be referred to the healthcare services they need4

So what has been done to help?

It’s important to note that most police officers fear if they are deemed “mentally unhealthy,” they will face suspension or lose their badge2. This fear causes police officers all over the country to go without mental health services. This might explain why only 20% of Dallas-Fort Worth police officers experiencing mental illness symptoms sought treatment4

Additionally, the image of police officers being “tough” and “strong,” makes it hard to have mental health awareness for them as a group even if the statistics show they face a very stressful and traumatic job. Those who do seek treatment, feel like the mental health specialists can not relate to them and what they’ve been through4

These issues in awareness, access, and treatment have led to certain strategies to address police officers’ mental health, which includes increasing awareness of police officers’ mental health issues, connecting police officers with mental health professionals,  and peer support groups. 

National Association of Police Organization’s Director William Johnson says “unions have been at the forefront of seeking to provide mental healthcare for their members4.” This involves creating “peer support units,” that serve to offer counseling to officers dealing with mental health issues4.

These peer support units help create awareness and conversation on mental health issues of police officers. They are important long term because those who had been in law enforcement longer (5-15 years) were three times as likely to have positive screenings for symptoms of mental health disorders4. Working in the field for over 15 years led to a seven-fold increase in the chance of a mental health illness diagnosis5

These statistics themselves are important for bringing awareness to the mental health of police officers. They come from a study first in its kind “to analyze mental illnesses, symptoms of mental illness, and mental health care use among officers at a large, urban police department.6” In focus groups, officers admitted to feeling “numb” to traumatic events6. They are unaware of the impact their experiences of working in law enforcement have on their mental health, so they might not seek treatment6

What’s next?

More studies like the one from the JAMA network need to be done to bring awareness to the mental health issues associated with working in law enforcement. To tackle the fear of losing jobs over a mental illness diagnosis, there must be greater trust between officers and police administration5. This could be peer groups offering confidentiality amongst coworkers first or contracting an independent mental health agency to screen police officers for mental health symptoms5.

Sources: 

  1. “Police Academy Training – What You Need to Know”
  2. “Mental Health Statistics: Police Officers”
  3. “Law enforcement”
  4. “25% of police officers have symptoms of mental health disorders, study finds”
  5. “How Often Do Cops Seek Mental Health Services?”
  6. Prevalence of Mental Illness and Mental Health Care Use Among Police Officers

The Uyghur Genocide

Through their apparent denial of the systematic persecution and restrictive policies of Uyghurs, China is refusing to uphold its responsibility to protect all of its population. Instead of honoring their obligation, China is pushing Han Chinese’s superiority over other ethnic Turkic groups.

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